The Small Business Investment Company Program: A Primer - AAF - American Action Forum

The Small Business Investment Company Program: A Primer - AAF - American Action Forum


The Small Business Investment Company Program: A Primer - AAF - American Action Forum

Posted: 09 Mar 2021 07:35 AM PST

Executive Summary

  • Over 60 years, the Small Business Administration has provided nearly $70 billion through 166,000 investments to America's small businesses, including financing for Apple, Intel, and Tesla.
  • Licensed Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) have access to a rapid deployment of funds and a flexible fund structure at generous interest rates in addition to favorable legal treatment under a bevy of laws from Dodd-Frank to the Community Reinvestment Act.
  • While comparatively small in scale, the SBIC program is one of the best examples of public-private partnerships, matching government funding with experienced investors solely for the purposes of supporting America's small businesses.

Context

On March 25, 2020, Congress passed the "Phase 3" stimulus package, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. With an estimated $2 trillion price tag, the third package would be one of the largest and most significant stimulus packages in American history. As part of this $2 trillion, Congress set aside $349 billion for the relief of small businesses, to be administered by the Small Business Administration (SBA) in the form of the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP). In the year since, the SBA has disbursed $663 billion in forgivable loans to eligible businesses.

The PPP is not the only tool available to the SBA, however, and as Congress considers a fifth legislative package attention has focused on a less prominent SBA program – the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program. Over its lifetime the SBIC has distributed more than $67 billion in capital through 166,000 investments in small businesses. This total is, of course, far smaller than the capital deployed via the PPP in far less time, but what makes the SBIC interesting is its structure as a fund-of-funds or investment program, in contrast to the forgivable loan mechanics of PPP loans.

While the PPP has been an extraordinarily effective in stabilizing a pandemic economy and keeping small businesses afloat, it is not above criticism. As Congress considers a fifth legislative package, and if further investment in small businesses is necessary, lawmakers could consider instead the benefits that supplementing the SBIC program could provide.

History

The SBA was formed in 1953 with the signing of the Small Business Act by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to "aid, counsel, assist and protect, insofar as is possible, the interests of small business concerns." As a key element to this mission, in 1958 the SBA launched the SBIC program and began licensing SBICs. The SBA provided financing (known as leverage) to its SBICs via the issuance of unsecured loans (known as debentures), and these SBICs would then make investments in small businesses they thought had potential for growth. Most initial SBICs in the 1960s, largely focused on real estate, were commercially unsuccessful and run by individuals without significant investment experience. In the 1970s, however, 300-500 SBICs were in operation, considerably more successfully, and in many ways defined the venture capital industry. Cripplingly high interest rates in the 1980s, however, demonstrated the problems of providing long-term financing using current-value debentures. That, coupled with restrictions on the maximum size of an investment (more accurately, a maximum leverage which the SBA would provide an SBIC) caused a decline in the relevance of the program over the next two decades, and by 1990 there were only 180 SBICs in operation. Over this same period the wider investment industry came to be defined by large venture capital firms, with pension funds as a ready supply of capital to these funds, rather than by SBICs and the SBA.

The SBA reviewed the performance of its SBICs in 1991, and in 1992 Congress passed the Small Business Equity Enhancement Act, completely overhauling the program and creating a new mechanism by which the SBA could invest funds through SBICs, the Participating Securities Program. Instead of an unsecured loan, the SBA instead entered a "preferred limited partnership interest" with SBICs with a guaranteed rate of return. Unlike the Debenture Program, which required SBICs to make periodic interest payments, the Participating Securities Program was constructed to require SBICs to pay the SBA a preferred return and profit share only when the SBIC realized profits. By allowing an SBIC to make investments in businesses that might not yet have cashflow, the SBA promoted a significant expansion of and interest in SBICs. The Act also raised the leverage available to an SBIC to $90 million, allowing SBICs to better compete with venture capital firms. For the first time the SBA also implemented a regulation framework consistent with the private venture capital industry and required SBICs to invest a minimum level of private capital. Despite this renewed flexibility, following the collapse of the "dot-com bubble" the Bush Administration decided that there was no need for an SBA equity investment program and that the existing program posed too much risk; the SBA closed the Participating Securities program in 2002.

Firms that benefited from SBIC investment in their early stages include Apple, Costco, Federal Express, Intel, Tesla, and Whole Foods.

Mechanics and Requirements

After its departure from equity investment, the SBA today provides leveraged financing in only one form, its Debenture Program. For every $1 the SBIC raises in private capital, the SBA will commit $2 of debt, up to a cap of $175 million. In this manner an SBIC with $50 million in private capital available can access up to $100 million in SBIC leverage, allowing them to invest $150 million in qualifying small businesses.

SBIC investments can be made in a variety of ways, from "straight" debt with no equity features (Loans), debt with equity features (Debt Securities) or stock and partnership interests (Equity Securities), or any combination of the above, with the interest rate charged by the SBA dependent on the type of investment. Investments must have a term of at least a year, but interest rates are priced extremely favorably by comparison to the market. In 2019, for example, $991 million of debentures issued by 63 SBICs were priced at a 2.283 percent interest rate, a 46.1 basis point improvement on the then 10-year Treasury note rate of 1.822 percent, and far less than the 5 percent interest rates banks typically charge when serving as lenders to small businesses.

An SBIC can only invest in "Small Businesses" and must invest at least 25 percent of  funds in "Smaller Enterprises" per the SBA standard definitions, which vary by industry. SBICs are prohibited from investing in certain types of small business, most notably those using the proceeds or with payroll or operations based outside of the United States (but also including many real estate projects, perhaps a lesson learned from the 1960s).

Favorable Legal Treatment

While the SBA today provides only one kind of financing, there exist two forms of SBIC, as some SBICs do not receive SBA financing at all. Known as non-leveraged SBICs (or frequently bank-owned SBICs) these firms operate entirely in the same manner as traditional investment companies, providing a wide range of debt and equity investment. What makes non-leveraged SBICs special is the same requirement that, to be licensed by the SBA, these SBICs make investments only in qualifying small businesses. In return these non-leveraged SBICs receive favorable legal treatment. SBIC investments are specifically identified in SBA statute as "qualified investments" for Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) purposes, a 1977 law designed to promote financial inclusion by requiring banks to provide services to low- and middle-income communities. SBIC investments also receive favorable treatment when calculating a bank's regulatory capital requirements, as below a certain level SBIC investments do not incur a capital charge. Finally, SBIC investments are exempt from Dodd-Frank requirements preventing banks from obtaining ownership interests in private equity firms, and SBICs are exempt from Volcker rule requirements preventing banks from investing in SBICs. These exemptions make SBICs extremely attractive to banks needing to meet their regulatory, capital, and investment requirements, all but guaranteeing a steady flow of private capital to SBICs. Similarly, certain SBIC advisers are exempt from provisions of the 1940 Investment Advisers Act that would otherwise require advisers of private funds to register with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Non-leveraged SBICs are themselves exempt from many of the SBA requirements that govern Debenture SBICs, most of them operational: from management-ownership diversity requirements, prohibiting a single investor from owning over 70 percent of an SBIC; the ability to sell assets without SBA permission; and recordkeeping requirements, explaining why some SBICs may prefer to not receive SBA financing and yet obtain the SBIC license.

Economics

As of September 30, 2020, there were 302 licensed SBICs holding $19 billion in private capital and $11 billion of outstanding SBA leverage. For the same year these SBICs reported $5 billion in financing to just over 1,000 small businesses, creating or supporting an estimated 92,000 jobs. During this period the SBA licensed 26 new SBICs, 21 equipped for Debenture financing and five non-leveraged, with another 46 SBICs in the review pipeline.

Conclusions

For over 60 years the SBA has provided financing to hundreds of licensed investment companies investing in thousands of American small businesses. While $67 billion over this period is small by comparison to the $679 billion disbursed to date by the PPP, the SBIC has many attractive features to consider. While the SBA is prescriptive in setting out the targets for SBIC investments, and applies careful scrutiny and oversight of its licensees, it is no more involved than that (outside of the provision of financing!). Investment managers with decades of experience, and not government, determine who to invest in, and they do so with real skin in the game with the requirement to front private capital. While interest rate and loan terms are extremely generous, they are still tethered to a market reality. Given the small scale of the SBIC, and the long-term nature of SBIC investments, it is hard to imagine a role for the SBIC in pandemic-related rescue efforts, and the PPP has performed admirably in injecting billions into the sector in very short order. A temporary shot of adrenaline is no substitute, however, for long-term support by professionals, and the SBIC represents one of the most successful public-private partnerships in U.S. history.

Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)s Industry 2021 Market Growth, Size, Share, Demand, Trends and Manufacturers Analysis Research Report 2028 – KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper

Posted: 10 Mar 2021 04:50 AM PST

The Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market Research Report Forecast 2021-2028 is a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists. It provides the Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry overview with growth analysis and historical & futuristic cost, revenue, demand. The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. This Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report.

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Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market 2021 analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. The Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed.

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Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Industry 2021 Market Research Report is spread across 100 pages and provides exclusive vital statistics, data, information, trends and competitive landscape details in this niche sector. For a pervasive understanding of the Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market, business strategies and latest developments of the vital players accompanied with co-development deals and market size, share, growth have also been enclosed. Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market competition by top manufacturers, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer;

The TOP PLAYERS:-

Kunlun Energy
Energy Holdings Limited (ENN)
Gazprom
Gasnor Shell
Skangass AS

Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market Report Comprises:

  • Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market [Present Market Size forecasted to 2028 with CAGR]
  • Regional level split [North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and Middle East & Africa]
  • Country wise Market Size Split [Important countries with major market share]
  • Market Size Breakdown by Product/ Service Types – [ ]
  • Market Size by Application/Industry verticals/ End Users – [ ]
  • Market Share and Revenue/Sales of 10-15 Leading Players in the Market
  • Production Capacity of Leading Players whenever applicable
  • Market Trends – Emerging Technologies/products/start-ups, PESTEL Analysis, SWOT Analysis, Porter's Five Forces, etc.
  • Pricing Trend Analysis – Average pricing across regions
  • Brand wise Ranking of Major Market Players globally

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This report also focuses on global major leading industry players of Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered and provides and extensive analysis of this market.

With tables and figures helping analyze worldwide Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market, this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

Based on Region:

  • North America (USA, Canada and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.)
  • Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

The report studies the Global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) marketing details and offers a granular analysis of the different factors promoting or hindering the market's growth. It leverages market-leading explanatory instruments to gage the openings anticipating players. It moreover profiles the driving companies working in that and captures information on their incomes. Their item offerings are figured in to decide the advertise division.

The years considered to estimate the market size in this study are as follows:

  • History Year: 2015-2018
  • Base Year: 2021
  • Forecast Year 2021 to 2028

15 Chapters analyzing in detail the global Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Market:-

Chapter 1, to describe Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force.

Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), with sales, revenue, and price of Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), in 2015 to 2021;

Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2015 to 2021;

Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), for each region, from 2015 to 2028;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;

Chapter 10 and 11, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2015 to 2028.

Chapter 12, Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2021 to 2028;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Small Scale Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source.

List of Table and figures…

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One year of Covid: ‘We were never short of food’ - Hindustan Times

Posted: 10 Mar 2021 05:50 AM PST

Mohammad Shamshad Sher, 41, runs a small-scale embroidery business in Dharavi, catering to designers, tailors, wedding parties, and apparel brands. He had to shut shop on March 24 when the national lockdown was announced to curb the spread of the coronavirus pandemic.

At the time, Mohammad rented three gallas, or makeshift shops in Dharavi, from where he operated his business. On his request, his landlords waived his rent, which cumulatively came to 45,000 a month, during the lockdown. Most of the 60 employees were migrants and returned to their villages in Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and North Maharashtra, soon after the lockdown was announced.

Mohammad's business was affected almost immediately. With barely a few thousand rupees in the bank, he had several payments from customers still pending and unfinished consignments left to deliver. All work came to a standstill and even routine customers, customers spread across Maharashtra in Jalna, Aurangabad, Akola, Jalgaon, Mumbai and Pune, refused to advance him money.

Mohammad says he isnt calling his former employees from their home towns because he cannot guarantee that he will have work for them(HT Photo/Satish Bate)
Mohammad says he isnt calling his former employees from their home towns because he cannot guarantee that he will have work for them(HT Photo/Satish Bate)

What followed were months of uncertainty and financial instability for Mohammad and his employees.

"In our line, we have money only if there is work. We need a pipeline of consignments to earn. There is no concept of saving as such. It's not hand to mouth, but it is close. Lockdown months were hard. I had no hope of recovering my losses and debt began to mount month after month. But the situation was worse for my employees," said Mohammad.

Also Read: Lessons in lockdown in Mumbai

Some who remained continued to live in the gallas -- each galla has an attached toilet and a small stove to cook meals on; the work tables are folded up and set against the wall at night to make space for sleeping -- but they could not continue to work due to the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation's instructions, despite having pending items on their list.

Food was available in plenty, because of the charity work many organizations took up in Dharavi during lockdown. "We never had to worry about what we will eat. Someone or the other came and gave us food packets. But then, we lived through eight-nine months with no concept of savoury food. Everyone ate whatever they got," he said.

By November, some of his former employees began to return to work, but Mohammad cannot afford to hire more than 10 people. Work has come down to four days a week, from six. "I cannot call my labour back from their home towns. If I do, I have to guarantee them work. But what if another lockdown is announced? I am giving employment to whoever has come of his own will."

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Industry Survey of Border Security Market 2021-2027 | BAE Systems PLC, FLIR systems, Inc. – KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper - KSU | The Sentinel Newspaper

Posted: 09 Mar 2021 09:31 PM PST

Border

Border Security Market Research Report

The Border Security Market report is a complete research study on the Border Security market, which attempts to present a clear picture of the key factors that shape this market. The assessments of a number of market segments, distinguished on the basis of the products, their applications, and the geographies, come under the scope of this research study.

The main goal of this research study is to understanding of the market for the Border Security to the manufacturers, suppliers, and the distributors operational in it. The readers can gain a deep insight into this market from this piece of information that can enable them to formulate and develop critical strategies for the further expansion of their businesses.

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It further provides the profile reviews of the leading market participants, their overall shares in the entire market, business strategies they have adopted, and the latest developments in their respective business in a bid to enhance the decision-making capability of the readers. This information on the main strategies and the recent developments of the key players is very much helpful for small-scale companies and new entrants looking for assistance to design their strategies in an efficient manner.

The report also presents the market competitive landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendor/key players in the market. The key players covered in this report: BAE Systems PLC, FLIR systems, Inc., Cobham, Saab AB, Thales SA, QinetiQ, Elbit systems Ltd., Harris Corporation, Airbus group, Finmeccanica SPA

The study report also offers an inclusive analysis of the key geographical regions mentioned in the research report of the Border Security market. Each mentioned region is analyzed on the basis of past growth patterns and offer arrays of development so far and also give out clear directions to the market players on what segments to focus on to generate better revenues in the coming years.

By Types: Ground, Aerial, Naval

By Application: Government Agency, Residence, Industrial

The revenue for the Border Security market is calculated as the sum market sizes of different segments such as component, service model, cloud deployment, organization size, vertical, and regions. Further, some other key data points considered to calculate the revenue for Border Security market includes revenues from key companies, key company market share analysis, consumer spending analysis, regional export, and import analysis, sales revenue generated by various applications in different geographies.

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4. To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity, and challenge, restraints, and risks.
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6. To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

Important Questions Covered in this Report:
1. What will the market size be in 2026?
2. What are the key factors driving the global market?
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4. Who are the key players in the market?
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6. What will be the growth rate in 2026?
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Small-Scale Liquefaction Market Projected to Witness Vigorous Expansion by 2028 – NeighborWebSJ - NeighborWebSJ

Posted: 10 Mar 2021 11:27 AM PST

Small-Scale LiquefactionThe global Small-Scale Liquefaction market has been garnering remarkable momentum in the recent years. The steadily escalating demand due to improving purchasing power is projected to bode well for the global market. Global Market Vision's latest publication, titled "[Small-Scale Liquefaction Market Research Report During 2021-2028]", offers an insightful take on the drivers and restraints present in the market. It assesses the historical data pertaining to the global Small-Scale Liquefaction market and compares it to the current market trends to give the readers a detailed analysis of the trajectory of the market. A team subject-matter experts have provided the readers a qualitative and quantitative data about the market and the various elements associated with it.

The research report is broken down into chapters, which are introduced by the executive summary. It's the introductory part of the chapter, which includes details about global market figures, both historical and estimates. The executive summary also provides a brief about the segments and the reasons for the progress or decline during the forecast period. The insightful research report on the global Small-Scale Liquefaction market includes Porter's five forces analysis and SWOT analysis to understand the factors impacting consumer and supplier behavior.

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The following Companies as the Key Players in the Global Small-Scale Liquefaction Market Research Report: Black & Veatch, GE, Linde, Shell, Siemens, Chart Industries, Cryostar, GTI, Wartsila.

Moreover, one of the uniqueness in the report is that it also covers the country-level analysis of the regulatory scenario, technology penetration, predictive trends, and prescriptive trends. This not only gives the readers of the report the actual real-time insights but also gives country-wise analysis, that plays a vital role in decision making. The inclusion of the report is not limited to the above mention key pointers. The report also emphasizes on the market opportunities, porters five forces, and analysis of the different types of products and application of the Global Small-Scale Liquefaction Market.

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Report Contains Specification
By Top Players Black & Veatch, GE, Linde, Shell, Siemens, Chart Industries, Cryostar, GTI, Wartsila.
Base Year 2021
Historical Data 2015 – 2021
Forecast Period 2021 – 2028
Market Segments Types, Applications, End-Users, and more.
By Product Types Direct Liquefaction, Indirect Liquefaction
By Applications / End-User Roadways, Bunkering, Power Industry, Other
Regional Scope North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa

Global Small-Scale Liquefaction Market Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the world's major regional market conditions of the Small-Scale Liquefaction industry, focusing on the main regions and the main countries as Follows:

  • North America (US and Canada)
  • Europe (UK, Germany, France, and Rest of Europe)
  • Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, and Rest of Asia Pacific)
  • Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, and Rest of Latin America)
  • Middle East & Africa (GCC and Rest of Middle East & Africa)

COVID-19 Impact on Small-Scale Liquefaction Market:

The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought along a global recession, which has impacted several industries. Along with this impact COVID Pandemic has also generated few new business opportunities for Small-Scale Liquefaction Market. Overall competitive landscape and market dynamics of Small-Scale Liquefaction has been disrupted due to this pandemic. All these disruptions and impacts has been analysed quantifiably in this report, which is backed by market trends, events and revenue shift analysis. COVID impact analysis also covers strategic adjustments for Tier 1, 2 and 3 players of Small-Scale Liquefaction Market.

Key Benefits of the Report:

  1. Global, and regional, type & end-use global Small-Scale Liquefaction industry market size and their forecast from 2021-2025
  2. Detailed analysis of key market dynamics, such as drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges influencing the growth of the market
  3. Detailed analysis of industry outlook with the supply chain to better understand the market and build expansion strategies
  4. Identification of key market players, analysing their market share and core competencies, detailed financial positions, key products
  5. Expert interviews and their insights on market trends, current, and future outlook, and factors impacting vendors' short term & long term strategies

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Table of Content:

Chapter 1: Introduction, market driving force product Objective of Study and Research Scope Small-Scale Liquefaction market

Chapter 2: Exclusive Summary – the basic information of Small-Scale Liquefaction Market.

Chapter 3: Displaying the Market Dynamics- Drivers, Trends and Challenges of Small-Scale Liquefaction

Chapter 4: Presenting Small-Scale Liquefaction Market Factor Analysis Porters Five Forces, Supply/Value Chain, PESTEL analysis, Market Entropy, Patent/Trademark Analysis.

Chapter 5: Displaying the by Type, End User and Region 2013-2018

Chapter 6: Evaluating the leading manufacturers of Small-Scale Liquefaction market which consists of its Competitive Landscape, Peer Group Analysis, BCG Matrix & Company Profile

Chapter 7: To evaluate the market by segments, by countries and by manufacturers with revenue share and sales by key countries in these various regions.

Chapter 8 & 9: Displaying the Appendix, Methodology and Data Source

Conclusion: At the end of Small-Scale Liquefaction Market report, all the findings and estimation are given. It also includes major drivers, and opportunities along with regional analysis. Segment analysis is also providing in terms of type and application both.



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